# Data Types

Data types are used to store values in program.

## What are Bits?

Bit is smallest unit of data. (Increases as Bits, Bytes, Kilobytes, Megabytes) Bit calculation is done with 2ⁿ. For example, 1 bit takes 2 values, 8 bits take 256 values.

### Truth (1 bit)

It takes 2 values. (true, false) Often used in conditional statements. For example, print Welcome if logged in. This means that if LoginDate data type is correct, it will say Login.

Example:

Truth loggedIn=true;

if(loggedIn) print("Welcome");

//Output: Welcome

## Integers

There are 4 integer data types. Usually Int data type is used.

### Byte (8 bits)

128 negative, 128 positive (together with 0) takes a total of 2⁸=256 values.

Example:

Byte num1=-128; //Correct

Byte num2=127; //Correct

Byte num3=128; //Incorrect

### Short (16 bit)

2¹⁵ negative, 2¹⁵ positive (together with 0) takes a total of 2¹⁶ values.

Example:

Short num1=32500; //Correct

Short num2=33000; //Incorrect

### Int (32 bit)

2³¹ negative, 2³¹ positive (together with 0) takes a total of 2³² values.

Example:

Int num1=512*1024*2048; //Correct

Int num2=1024*2048*4096; //Incorrect

### Long (64 bit)

2⁶³ negative, 2⁶³ positive (together with 0) takes a total of 2⁶⁴ values.

Example:

Long num=100;

## Decimals

There are 2 decimal data types. It takes an integer value of up to 7 digits.

### Decimal (32 bit)

It takes 8 digits. (excluding 0) If 8 digits are exceeded, number is rounded up. To indicate that value written is decimal, "d" is written at end.

Example:

Decimal num1=0.12345678d;

Decimal num2=1.1234567d;

Decimal num3=10.123456d;

Decimal num4=1234567.5d;

### Number (64 bit)

It takes 17 digits. If 17 digits are exceeded (excluding 0) number is rounded up. Takes both Decimal and Int values.

Example:

Number num1=0.12345678912345678;

Number num2=1234567.1234567891;

Number num3=10;

## Texts

There are 2 textual data types. It is written in double quotes. Usually Text data type is used. Exception characters are written with "\".

### Exception Characters

New line: \n

Tab: \t

Quotes: \"

Open Curly Brackets: \{

Close Curly Brackets : \}

### Character

Takes 1 character.

Example:

Character char1="a";

Character char2=":";

Character char3="\"";

### Text

It consists of a combination of characters. If a character is used in text data type, "t" is written to right of double quotes. If a value is written in double quotes, it is written in curly brackets.

Example:

Text text1="Welcome";

print(text1.length); //Output: 11

Text text2=":"t;

Text text3="5+2={5+2}";

## Arrays

It is used to store multiple values in a single variable. Its first element is 0.

DataType[] variable; // Array is created.

Usage 1: DataType[] variable=new DataType[ElementsCounts];

Example:

Text[] fruits=new Text; //We created a text array and specified that it has 3 elements.

fruits="apple";

fruits="pear";

fruits="strawberry"; //It gives an error. Because 3 elements can be written.

print(fruits); //It outputs null. Because we didn't give any value.

print(fruits.indexSize); //Output: 3

Usage 2: DataType[] variable=new DataType[]{elements};

Example:

Int[] scores=new Int[]{40,70,95,100};

scores=49;

print(scores); //Output: 49

print(scores); //Output: 100

print(scores); //It gives an error. Because there are 4 elements.

print(scores.indexSize); //Output: 4